Inventive, innovative and revolutionary Victorian Jewellery saw developments both socially and creatively. While nature remained a favoured theme, the Romantic Movement encouraged the use of the floral and cascading designs. Contrasts between colours and materials became more prominent, and technological advancements meant machine jewellery flooded the market. The most associated jewels of Victorian Jewellery are the "snake" and hidden message rings, such as "Regard" (Ruby, Emerald, Garnet, Amethyst, Ruby, Diamond) and "Dearest" (Diamond, Emerald, Amethyst, Ruby, Emerald, Sapphire, Tourmaline). Birmingham became the world's forerunner in jewellery manufacture, and techniques such as gold plating and rolled gold were introduced in abundance. As the Victorian people became disenchanted with the poor quality of the mass produced jewellery, efforts were made to pull standards back to their original glory. New carat standards were brought in to effect and various revival styles, such as Etruscan, Egyptian and Greek were seen in jewellery. Sadly in 1861, Albert Prince Consort, Queen Victoria's beloved husband of twenty-one years, passed away. Queen Victoria remained in a state of mourning until her own death in 1901. This had led to forty years of mourning jewellery, which is now highly prized to Victorian Jewellery collectors. Be it beautiful creations from Whitby Jet, to comforting "Mizpah" jewels, her loyal subjects followed her tastes and fashions right until the end.